Everyone loves fireworks.  Fireworks are quite old. The oldest form of fireworks was a firecracker from 7th century China, now we can make complex shapes like planets and clown faces.

So what gives the colors in fireworks?

There are a few elements at work. Barium, strontium, copper, and sodium make the colors green, red, blue, and yellow.  Aluminum and titanium make white; and carbon makes yellow.

So as you can see, fireworks are a explosion of color and chemistry.

Pi (π) is an old number. It is found in the ratio of a circle’s diameter to its circumference. This might not seem like a big deal for our modern sensibilities, but this was important in the construction of arches for buildings and churches. And, let us not forget the wheel.

Circles are everywhere from wheels of a car, to wheels on a bike, to the shape of a pizza. If you don’t think pizza boxes don’t have to consider pi when making them, you are mistaken. The problem of a circle in a square has perplexed many mathematical geniuses over the centuries.

Talking about mathematicians, they have some funny words to describe pi.  Mathematicians would call pi irrational, which means that you can never find a fraction that is equal to pi.  For ancient people, or for anyone without a calculator, this is maddening. It is nice to be able to simplify pi.  But, there isn’t a way to do that.  For centuries, people looked for a fraction for pi and the closest is  22/7, but this doesn’t exactly equal  pi.  The other weird thing about pi is that it is transcendental, which means it will never be the solution to an algebraic expression.

Pi is a number that is everywhere but it just doesn’t fit in our standard way of thinking about numbers.

Another weird thing about pi is that it goes on for infinity, without end. Computer scientists have calculated pi for billions of digits. Like this …3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937 …  And on and on and on.

The last thing about pi is that it is use in statistics without our knowing. Whenever there is a bell curve shape, the mathematical expression for the bell curve, also known as a normal distribution, has pi in it. That means that pi is not only in every circle you see, but in any poll where an average is taken.

Pi is everywhere, which is why we take a day out of the year to celebrate it.

Happy 3.14!

 

For those serious about pi:

A history of Pi

A pi-shaped pi pan

And this year’s Oscar goes to .   .    .   chemistry.

On that wonderful night in LA, the red carpet is full of celebrities and fans all eager to hear who wins the gold statue.  However, the Oscar statue isn’t pure gold. That would be extremely expensive.  The Oscar is actually a bronze statue that is coated with gold.

So how does the Oscar become, well, an Oscar?

To understand we have to think about frog’s legs.

In the late 1700s, Luigi Galvani, who was a professor of anatomy in Italy, was dissecting frogs using a metal scalpel and a copper clamp. He noticed something: The frog’s legs twitched like they were alive! He repeated this a couple of times and they twitched every time.

He found something amazing and called it animal electricity. That is the animal had some supernatural life force inside of it. Galvani wrote up his results and all of Europe embraced this idea.

But, on the other side of Italy was a physics professor named Alessandro Volta. He believed in Galvani’s idea at first, but began to think it was the two different metals that caused the legs to twitch. Volta recalled an earlier experiment by another scientist who had put his tongue between two different coins, and it created a terrible taste. Ends up, that  the two metals next each other in a liquid (saliva, in this case) started a chemical reaction.

So with this old experiment in the back of his mind, Volta made sandwiches of two different metals and put them in a jar full of saltwater. Then, he connected wires from this stack of metals to the frog’s legs. They twitched.

What Volta showed is that two different metals together make electricity. He made a battery.

In a battery, electricity flows from one metal to the other.

But what does this have to do with the Oscars?

Well, in order for electricity to flow in a battery in one direction, there has to be metal flowing in the opposite direction.  If you were to look at the metal under the microscope you would see that a metal coating is starting to form.

So to make an Oscar this coating process is taken to a much bigger level.  The bronze statue is put in a huge chemical tank that has microscopic gold floating in a liquid. Electricity is attached to the statue and the gold particles become attracted to the statue and start to coat it. After a really long time in the tank, the statute becomes the beautiful icon we know today.

So, if you enjoy the Oscars, and many do, you really have frog’s legs to thank.

References:

Luigi Galvani: Bern Dibner

How the Oscar Got a Facelift this Year

How Frog Legs Helped Make the Oscars Possible (Video)